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Yhdistystoiminta aktivoitui sodan jälkeen ja kirjamuodossa julkaistussa Jockes brev saatettiin lukea merkittävistä häistä, juhlista ja kokouksista.

Alueella pidettiin esitelmiä, järjestettiin teatteriesityksiä sekä soitto- ja laulutilaisuuksia. Aina ja luvuille saakka väestönmäärä kasvoi verkkaisesti.

Sparlanda oli ensimmäinen kunnan suunnittelema asuinalue, tontit rakennettiin sinne luvun alussa. Tämän jälkeen alueelle on kaavoitettu ja rakennettu useampia asuinalueita.

Alueelle on muuttanut paljon väkeä ja kasvun odotetaan jatkuvan. Vad har Solf att erbjuda? Mitä Sulva voi tarjota? Sulvan maaseutuympäristö tarjoaa asumiseen ja varttumiseen turvallisen paikan.

Kyrkan invigdes Altaruppsatsen, som är inköpt i Hudiksvall , är en stor sevärdhet i den vackra kyrkan. Grundservicen är bra i Solf.

Lukukautena Sulvan koulussa on oppilasta. Söderfjärden on merkittävä viljelysalue ja merkittävä linnustonsa takia keväisin ja syksyisin.

Pumppuasemalla puolestaan voit osallistua Söderfjärdenin kuivatustarinaan ja ihailla kauniita maisemia. Kirkko, pappila, seurakuntakoti ja hautausmaa muodostavat kauniin kokonaisuuden.

Kirkko vihittiin käyttöön Alttariosa on ostettu Hudiksvallista ja se on kauniin kirkon merkittävimmistä nähtävyyksistä.

Stundarsin ulkoilmamuseo on rakennettu seurakunnan maille ja kuuluu näin ollen alueeseen. Seurakunta tarjoaa toimintaa eri-ikäisille lapsille sekä nuorille, aikuisille ja eläkeläisille.

Laulu ja musiikki ovat aina olleet merkittäviä tekijöitä Sulvan kulttuurielämässä. Jousiorkesteri, puhallinorkesteri, kuoro ja lasten musiikkikoulu kuuluvat kylän kulttuuritarjontaan.

Föräldra-barn-träff vid Solf församlingshem. Vanhemmat ja lapset—ryhmä Sulvan seurakuntatalolla. Ett flertal föreningar ordnar ledda fritidsaktiviteter.

Fotboll och orientering hör till de populäraste sporterna. Tack vare närheten till Vasa har Solf länge varit en populär inflyttningsort.

Alla tillgängliga hyreslägenheter är uthyrda och de kommunala bostadstomterna säljs vartefter de kommer till salu. Stundars är ett stort museum och ett levande kulturcentrum, som starkt präglar bygden.

Sulvalla on hyvät peruspalvelut. Alueella sijaitsee päiväkoti, ruotsinkielinen ala-aste, kirjasto ja terveysasema. Saatavilla on useita lastenhoitajia sekä kerhotoimintaa ala-astelaisille.

Lähikauppa, pankki, kukkakauppa, lahjatavarakauppa sekä ravintolat palvelevat niin kylän asukkaita kuin vierailijoitakin.

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My number one goal for my classroom is that it is joyful, so this is a pretty good reason to try it! So after thinking about how to include pop music in my lessons since my training didn't include it at all , I realized the reason it can be so hard to do is that pop music keeps changing.

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Then when you change to a different motion, they do too! A hermit who has abandoned war instructs an ambitious squire in the virtues of chivalry, and sends him to court, whence he returns "with much wealth and honour.

In some sort the Tratado sobre las Armas Treatise on Arms is a memoir of the writer's house, containing a powerful presentation of the death of Juan Manuel's guardian.

King Sancho, passing to eternity beneath his father's curse. He repro- duces Sancho's excellent manner and sound practical advice without the flaunting erudition of his cousin.

The Castigos are suspended to supply the monk, Juan Alfonso, with a treatise on the Modes of Love, fifteen in number ; being, in fact, an ingenious discussion on friend- ship.

The allegorical didactic vein is worked to exhaustion in one hundred and fifty chapters, which relate the education of the pagan Morovan's son, Johas, by a certain Turfn, who, unable to satisfy his pupil, calls to his aid the celebrated preacher Julio.

After interminable discussions and resolutions of theo- logical difficulties, the story ends in the baptism of father, son, and tutor.

Dominic who, as a matter of fact, died before Juan Manuel's father was born. This confused philosophic story, suggestive of the legend of Barlaam and Josaphat, is in truth the vehicle for conveying the author's ideas on every sort of question, and it might be described without injustice as the carefully revised commonplace book of an omni- vorous reader with a care for form.

A postscript to the Book of States is the Book of Preaching Friars y a summary of the Dominican constitution expounded by Julio to his pupil.

A very similar dissertation is the Treatise showing that the Blessed Mary is, body and soul y in Paradise , directed to Rem6n Masquefa, Prior of Peftafiel.

The convention of the " moral lesson " is maintained, and each chapter of the First Part the others are rather un- finished notes ends with a declaration to the effect that "when Don Johan heard this example he found it good, ordered it to be set down in this book, and added these verses" — the verses being a concise summary of the prose.

Boccaccio used the frame- work first in Italy, but Juan Manuel was before him by six years, for the Conde Lucanor was written not later than The examples are taken from experience, and are told with extraordinary narrative skill.

Simplicity of theme is matched by simplicity of expression. He lacks the merri- ment, the genial wit of the Archpriest ; but he has the same gift of irony, with an added note of cutting sarcasm, and a more anxious research for the right word.

In mind as in blood he is the great Alfonso's kinsman, and the relation becomes evident in his treat- ment of the prose sentence.

He inherited it with many another splendid tradition, and, while he preserves entire its stately clearness, he polishes to concision ; he sets with conscience to the work, sharpening the edges of his instrument, exhibits its possibilities in the way of trenchancy, and puts it to subtler uses than heretofore.

In his hands Castilian prose acquires a new ductility and finish, and his subjects are such that dramatists of genius have stooped to borrow from him.

Pilferings by Le Sage are things of course, and Gil Bias benefits by its author's reading. Translations apart — and they are forthcoming — the Conde Lucanor is one of the books of the world, and each reading of it makes more sensible the loss of the verses which, one would fain believe, might place the writer as high among poets as among prose writers.

That King's sole exploit in literature is a handbook on venery, often attributed to Alfonso the Learned.

It is to be noted that he speaks of rendering Merlin's prophecy in the Castilian tongue : — " Yo Rodrigo Yannes la noti En lenguaje castellafio" Everything points to his having translated from a Galician original, being himself a Galician who hispaniolised his name of Rodrigo Eannes.

Strong arguments in favour of this theory are advanced by great authorities — Pro- fessor Cornu, and that most learned lady, Mme.

Carolina Michaelis de Vasconcellos. In the first place, the many technical defects of the Poema vanish upon translation into Galician ; and next, the verses are laced with allu- sions to Merlin, which indicate a familiarity with Breton legends, common enough in Galicia and Portugal, but absolutely unknown in Spain.

Be that as it prove, the Poema interests as the last expression of the old Castilian epic. His last appearance on any stage is marked by a portent — the suppression of the tedious Alexandrine, and the resolution into two lines of the sixteen-syllabled verse, Yaftez is an excellent instance of the third-rate man, the amateur, who embodies, if he does not initiate, a revolution.

His own system of octosyllabics in alter- nate rhymes has a sing-song monotony which wearies by its facile copiousness, and inspiration visits him at SEM TOB 87 rare and distant intervals.

But the step that costs is taken, and a place is prepared for the young romance in literature. The moral is pressed with insistence, the presentation is haphazard ; while the extreme con- cision of thought, the exaggerated frugality of words, tends to obscurity.

Against this is to be set the exalted standard of the teaching, the daring figures of the writer, his happiness of epithet, his note of austere melancholy, and his complete triumph in naturalising a new poetic genre.

In the case of the anonymous Danza de la Muerte the metre once more fixes the period of composition at about the end of the fourteenth century.

It is not rash to assume that its immediate occasion was the last terrific outbreak of the Black Death, which lasted from to Death bids mankind to his revels, and forces them to join his dance.

The form is superficially dramatic, and the thirty-three victims — pope, emperor, cardinal, king, and so forth, a cleric and a layman always alternating — reply to the summons in a series of octaves.

Whoever composed the Spanish version, he must be accepted as an expert in the art of morbid allegory. A writer who represents the stages of the literary evo- lution of his age is the long-lived Chancellor, Pero L6pez DE Ayala His career is a veritable romance of feudalism.

Living under Alfonso XL, he became the favourite of Pedro the Cruel, whom he deserted at the psychological moment. He chronicles his own and his AY ALA 89 father's defection in such terms as Pepys or the Vicar of Bray might use: — "They saw that Don Pedro's affairs were all awry, so they resolved to leave him, not intend- ing to return.

Loyalty he held for a vain thing compared with interest ; yet he earned his money and his lands in fight. He ever strove to be on the winning side, but luck was hostile when the Black Prince captured him at Ndjera , and when he was taken prisoner at Aljubarrota The fifteen months spent in an iron cage at the castle of Oviedes after the second defeat gave Ayala one of his opportunities.

He had wasted no chance in life, nor did he now. It were pleasant to think with Ticknor that some part of Ayala's Rimado de Palacio " was written during his imprisonment in England," — pleasant, but difficult.

To begin with, it is by no means sure that Ayala ever quitted the Penin- sula. More than this : though the Rimado de Palacio was composed at intervals, the stages can be dated approxi- mately.

The earlier part of the poem contains an allu- sion to the schism during the pontificate of Urban VI.

Rimado de Palacio Court Rhymes is a chance title that has attached itself to Ayala's poem without the author's sanction.

It gives a false impression of his theme, which is the decadence of his age. Only within narrow limits does Ayala deal with courts and courtiers ; he had a wider outlook, and he scourges society at large.

Ruiz had a natural sympathy for a loose-living cleric ; Ayala lashes this sort with a thong steeped in vitriol.

The one looks at life as a farce ; the other sees it as a tragedy. Where the first finds matter for merriment, the second burns with the white indignation of the just.

The deliberate mordancy of Ayala is impartial insomuch as it is universal. Courtiers, statesmen, bishops, lawyers, merchants — he brands them all with corruption, simony, embezzlement, and exposes them as venal sons of Belial.

And, like Ruiz, he places himself in the pillory to heighten his effects. He spares not his superstitious belief in omens, dreams, and such-like fooleries ; he dis- covers himself as a grinder of the poor man's face, a libidinous perjurer, a child of perdition.

But not all Ayala's poem is given up to cursing. In his th stanza he closes what he calls his sermSn with the confession that he had written it, "being sore afflicted by many grievous sorrows," and in the re- maining stanzas Ayala breathes a serener air.

In both existing codices — that of Campo-Alange and that of the Escorial — this huge postscript follows the Rimado de Palacio with no apparent break of continuity; yet it differs in form and substance from what precedes.

The cuaderna via alone is used in the satiric and auto- biographical verses ; the later hymns and songs are metrical experiments — echoes of Galician and Provencal measures, redondillas of seven syllables, attempts to raise the Alexandrine from the dead, results derived from Alfonso's Cantigas and Juan Ruiz' loores.

In his seventy-third year Ayala was still working upon his Rimado de Palacio. Gregory's Job, If he be the writer of the Pro- verbios en Rimo de SalomSn — a doubtful point — his pre- ference for the old system is there undisguised.

Could that system have been saved, Ayala had saved it : not even he could stay the world from moving. His prose is at least as distinguished as his verse.

A treatise on falconry, rich in rarities of speech, shows the variety of his interests, and his version of Boc- caccio's De Casibus Virorum illustrium brings him into touch with the conquering Italian influence.

His refer- ence to Amadh in the Rimado de Palacio stanza , the first mention of that knight-errantry of Spain, proves acquaintance with new models.

Translations of Boetius and of St. Isidore were pastimes ; a partial rendering of Livy, done at the King's command, was of greater value. In person or by proxy, Alfonso the Learned had opened up the land of history ; Juan Manuel had summarised his uncle's work ; the chronicle of the Moor Rasis, other- wise Abu Bakr Ahmad ibn Muhammad ibn Musa, had been translated from the Arabic ; the annals of Alfonso XL and his three immediate predecessors were written by some industrious mediocrity — perhaps Ferndn Sanchez de Tovar, or Juan Niifiez de Villaizdn.

These are not so much absolute history as the raw material of history. Songs, legends, idle reports, no longer serve as evidence.

Ayala sifts his testimonies, compares, counts, weighs them, checks them by personal knowledge. He deals with events which he had witnessed : plots which his crafty brain inspired, victories wherein he shared, battles in which he bit the dust.

The portraits in his gallery are scarce, but every likeness is a masterpiece rendered with a few broad strokes.

He records with cold-blooded im- partiality as a judge ; his native austerity, his knowledge of affairs and men, guard him from the temptations of the pleader.

With his unnatural neutrality go rare in- stinct for the essential circumstance, unerring sagacity in the divination and presentment of character, unerring art in preparing climax and catastrophe, and the gift of concise, picturesque phrase.

Few, if any, of the existing ballads date from Ayala's time ; and of the nineteen hundred printed in Duron's Romancero General the merest handful is older than , when Antonio de Nebrija examined their structure in his Arte de la Lengua Castellana.

Yet the older romances were numerous and long-lived enough to sup- plant the cantares de gesta, against which chronicles and annals made war by giving the same epical themes with more detail and accuracy.

In turn these chronicles afforded siijajects for romances of a later day. An illus- tration suffices to prove the point.

Representative of these innovations is the grandson of Enrique II. Villena, of whose treatise mere scraps survive, shows minute acquaintance with the works of early trovadores ; of general principles he says naught, losing himself in discursive details.

Early in followed the Trabajos de Hercules Labours of Her- cules , first written in Catalan by request of Pero Pardo, and done into Castilian in the autumn of the year.

This tedious allegory, crushed beneath a weight of pedantry, is unredeemed by ingenuity or fancy, and the style is disfigured by violent and absurd inversions which bespeak long, tactless study of Latin texts.

Juan Manuel's digni- fied restraint is lost on his successor, itching to flaunt 1 Strictly speaking, this writer should be called Enrique de Arag6n ; but, since this leads to confusion with his contemporary, the Infante Enrique de Arag6n, it is convenient to distinguish him as Enrique de Villena.

He was not a marquis, and never uses the title. Still odder is the Libro de Aoja- miento Dissertation on the Evil Eye with its three "preventive modes," as recommended by Avicenna and his brethren.

Translations of Dante and Cicero are lost, and three treatises on leprosy, on consolation, and on the Eighth Psalm are valueless. Villena piqued himself on being the first in Spain — he might perhaps have said the first anywhere — to translate the whole jEneid ; but he marches to ruin with his mimicry of Latin idioms, his abuse of inversion, and his graces of a cart-horse in the lists.

No contemporary was more famed for uni- versal accomplishment ; so that, while he lived, men held him for a wizard, and, when he died, applauded the partial burning of his books by Lope de Barrientos, afterwards Bishop of Segovia, who put the rest to his private uses.

Santillana and Juan de Mena assert that Villena wrote Castilian verse, and Baena implies as much ; if so, he was probably a common poetaster, the loss of whose rhymes is a stroke of luck.

A Castilian poem on the labours of Hercules, ascribed to him by Pellicer, is a rank forgery. Measured by his repute, Villena's works are disappointing.

But if we reflect that he translated Dante, that he strove to naturalise successful foreign methods, and that in his absurdest moments he proves his susceptibility to new ideas, we may explain his renown and his influence.

To Villena's time belong two specimens of the old encyclopaedic school : the Libro de los Gatos, translated from the Narrationes of the English monk, Odo of Cheriton ; and the Libro de los Enxemplos of Clemente SAnchez of Valderas, whose seventy-one missing stories were brought to light in by M.

The style is carefully modelled on Juan Manuel's manner. Bibliography: Includes bibliographical references. General Note: Printout.

General Note: Vita. Statement of Responsibility: by Rafael Samudio, Jr. Smathers Libraries respect the intellectual property rights of others and do not claim any copyright interest in this item.

This item may be protected by copyright but is made available here under a claim of fair use 17 U. Users of this work have responsibility for determining copyright status prior to reusing, publishing or reproducing this item for purposes other than what is allowed by fair use or other copyright exemptions.

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To my wife Julieta E. Carri6n de Samudio in gratitude for her unconditional love, support, and patience; and to the Walrus Clan for keeping my "Fire" alive.

I thank Dr. Brian K. McNab, my major advisor, for all his support during my course work and for his advice while conducting my field research, and in the planning and writing stages of this research.

I especially thank Dr. McNab for showing me with his example how to be a scientist and teacher, and also for showing me that "the road less traveled" is after all not such a lonely road.

I would like to express my appreciation to the members of my committee. Frank J. Bonaccorso has been an intellectual stimulus since I read his pioneering long-term study on Panamanian bats.

I thank him, not only for expanding my view on the ecology of tropical bats, but also for giving me his friendship, for being like a big brother to me.

Douglas J. Levey for his critical observations and suggestions regarding field study, data analysis, and the writing process.

Colin A. Chapman for his astute comments, advice, and suggestions regarding this research. Sue H. Boinski Department of Anthropology, UF for her critical comments and advice regarding this study.

Francis E. Putz Department of Botany, UF for his constant support and advice in the planning, analysis, and writing stages of this study. I would also like to thank Dr.

Craig Osenberg Department of Zoology, UF for his critical observations on developing a theoretical framework at the early stage of this study.

I am very thankful to my friends Dr. Carlos A. I deeply thank my research supervisors in Panami, Dr. David W. Elisabeth K. Charles 0.

Handley, Jr. National Museum of Natural History for sharing their knowledge of tropical ecology and bat biology. I am very grateful to Dr.

Eustorgio M6ndez for his support and for being a constant source of inspiration. During the work in Panama I received the help of the following persons in the field with the bat captures.

Vargas, William Castrellon, Magdalena del C. I also thank the diplomat student Sabine MUller Universitat TUbingen for collaborating on the acoustic bat inventory and for helping with the mist netting.

Special thanks go to Julieta E. Carri6n de Samudio for moral support and help during the planning, field, and writing stages; and to Rogelio Samudio for helping me get additional funds for the study.

Arauz," Mrs. Daniel Solfs and Carlos Espinosa, for all their support iv during the field work. December Chair: Brian K.

McNab Major Department: Zoology Neotropical bats are the most diverse mammals in terms of number of species and food habits.

Bats show differential distribution in relation to season, elevation, habitat, and forest strata. This study compared temporal and spatial bat diversity and ecology patterns between a lowland forest and a cloud forest in western Pacific Panami.

Bat communities were sampled monthly for 3. Data on climate and forest structure were measured in both sites.

Although both forests had similar annual and seasonal rainfall patterns, the cloud forest had higher annual and monthly amounts of rainfall; and lower mean, maximal, and minimal ambient temperatures.

The lowland forest had a taller, more closed canopy with less understory cover than the cloud forest. Bats in the lowland community clearly differentiated as either understory or canopy bats.

Bats in the cloud forest community were either canopy bats or used both strata equally. Some bat species departed from the male to female proportion in both forests, whereas other species varied the sex ratio viii with forest type and season.

Species richness did not vary with forest type or strata, whereas species abundance varied with both forest type and strata.

Results also showed similar total abundance between sites, but not between strata. The cloud forest bat community had higher evenness and species diversity than the lowland bat community.

Bat species richness and abundance varied with month, season, and year, and some of these temporal patterns varied with forests type and strata.

Bats' use of forest strata varied with species and season. The results suggest that bat communities are influenced by different factors including climate, forest structure, food availability, and competition.

Because of these characteristics, bats are a promising group to examine for factors that influence diversity and ecological patterns in tropical habitats.

Although the importance of tropical bats has long been recognized, few studies have been conducted on the community level Kalko This limited database made it difficult to answer fundamental questions about the high species diversity of tropical bats and their functional significance in the ecosystem Kalko Bats are difficult to study because of their flying capacity, nocturnal behavior, high diversity, and relative taxonomic uncertainty Findley , Kalko , Lim and Engstrom These difficulties have led to collection of data without standardized methods, thus limiting the potential for comparison among studies Kalko and establishing a weak theoretical framework.

Recent studies in the Neotropics show that published bat species lists are incomplete because sampling bias Kalko et al.

Some bat species fly in canopy or over the forest, making it difficult to sample with one method. However, comparative studies are now being conducted to identify latitudinal and altitudinal patterns in bat diversity, to identify mechanisms that structure bat communities, and to evaluate bats as potential indicators of ecosystem conditions in human-disturbed habitats.

To fill the gap in bat ecological 1 2 theory, it is necessary to gather new data from standardized, long-term studies that integrate a variety of inventory methods Kalko Because it is almost impossible to conduct experimental studies of bats on the community level, most studies rely on the comparative approach wherein general patterns can be identified by examining diversity and structure of species assemblages in different habitats Kalko The objective of this work is to examine how the diversity and ecological patterns of two bat communities in western Pacific Panami a lowland forest and a cloud forest vary spatially and temporally.

Bats show differential distribution in relation to season, elevation, habitat, and forest strata Handley , Bonaccorso , Humphrey and Bonaccorso , Bonaccorso and Humphrey , Fleming , Bernard , Kalko and Handley , Lim and Engstrom Studies showed that bat species richness in the Neotropics increases with rainfall and vegetation complexity in lowland forest, but decreases with elevation Koopman , Graham , Fleming a, Mufioz , , Patterson et al.

I conducted a 3. To accomplish a more complete bat inventory, I complemented my long-term understory and canopy mist-netting inventory with 3 months of acoustic inventory.

Bats, like Neotropical bees and birds, or North American granivorous rodents Karr and Freemark , Brown and Kurzius , Roubik may show differences in their species' response to environmental variability.

Bats are often highly variable in their behavior regarding abiotic and biotic factors Fenton In Chapter 2, I examine 3 the influence of season and forest type on the bat vertical stratification and adult sex ratio in these two communities by concentrating the analysis on the most common species of nectarivorous and frugivorous bats.

I gathered data on rainfall and ambient temperature as well as data in forest structure to discuss the possible influence of these factors on bat ecology.

The purpose of Chapter 2 was to evaluate the advantages of long-term sampling in both strata to detect variation in bat strata use and sex ratio that may influence bat diversity.

Currently, our knowledge of patterns and processes in bat communities is poor because of the lack of standardized, long-term comparative studies Kalko Previous studies have compared bat communities in terms of their biogeography, morphology, and ecology Fleming a, Findley , Stevens and Willig , using data collected in different years and with different methods.

These sampling biases may limit the ability of these studies to detect ecological patterns. By extending previous one-year bat studies, I described in Chapter 3 the temporal and spatial patterns of bat species richness and abundance in these forests to understand the diversity patterns in bat communities.

I also examined the ecological characteristics of species that correlate with distribution and abundance within and between sites, and compared the results from this study with results obtained in other Neotropical sites.

I discussed guild composition and structure with the purpose of identifying how resource differentiation may influence bat diversity in these sites.

Studies of sympatric bats in Neotropical forests show that differentiation of food, habitat, or temporal resources Bonaccorso and Humphrey , Kalko promote the coexistence of ecologically similar species.

Additionally, these studies showed that bat species, especially frugivores, seasonally fluctuate in their populations and switch 4 strata, suggesting that these patterns can be widespread among bats and can operate as a mechanism of coexistence.

In Chapter 4, I investigated the extent to which nectarivorous and frugivorous bat species differentiate in vertical and temporal components.

I mainly focused on species of the highly diverse and abundant bat genera: Artibeus, Sturnira, and Carollia. Because body size may influence strata use, I examined the correlation of vertical stratification with species body mass.

The effects of these environmental factors have implications for the feeding behavior and reproductive ecology of animals and therefore are important factors to consider for the conservation and management of biological diversity Karr et al.

However, because studies of the influence of environmental variability have not been undertaken in a wide diversity of habitats, the development of general principles is difficult Karr et al.

For example, it is difficult to show that rainfall is more important than temperature in regulating animal populations Grant and Grant Neotropical bats are an appropriate group to examine in studying the influence of environmental factors on animal ecology.

They are exposed to contrasting environments at small and large spatio-temporal scales as a result of their life history, three-dimensional habitat, and wide distribution Eisenberg , Willig and Mares , Findley , Jones Furthermore, New World bats play important roles as pollinators, seeddispersers, and predators of invertebrates and small vertebrates in different habitats Humphrey and Bonaccorso , Fleming , Willig and Mares , Findley , Kalko Bats have been considered good indicators of forest conditions because of 5 6 their sensibility to forest disturbance Johns et al.

Consequently, it is important to identify differential ecological responses that may indicate changing habits if we are to understand and conserve forest habitats.

Neotropical bats differ in their distribution and abundance in respond to season, elevation, habitat, and forest strata Bonaccorso , Humphrey and Bonaccorso , Bonaccorso and Humphrey , Bernard , Kalko and Handley , Lim and Engstrom Furthermore, capture rates of some species show significant differences between understory and canopy nets Kalko and Handley Changes in strata use are mainly related to tracking of food resources and changes in sex ratio may indicate reproductive constraints in one sex.

These differences in behavior may be used as indirect evidence of differential foraging and reproductive behavior Bonaccorso and Humphrey , Fleming , , Gardner et al.

For example, Carollia perspicillata in Costa Rica showed a male-skewed sex ratio during the dry season, a period of low food availability, when females migrate for energetic reasons to give birth in another site Fleming In Panami, the understory bat C.

Additionally, the sex ratio can give information about habitat change, social and reproductive structure, and survivorship Fleming , Estrada and Coates-Estrada , Stoner I intensively surveyed a lowland forest and a cloud forest for 3.

This was accomplished by concentrating on the most common species of nectarivorous and frugivorous bats 7 captured in these forests. Additionally, I measured rainfall, ambient temperature, and forest structure to see if these factors are related to variability of bat ecology.

The lowland site was Cerro Batipa 80 20' The site lies in a tropical moist forest life zone Tosi and has a tropical climate with a prolonged dry season McKay based on De Martonne This climate has a mean annual ambient temperature of The study region is in the Province of Chiriquf, western Pacific Panamd.

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